About Gujarati Calendar 2013 and Vikram Samvat
Gujarati Hindu calendar is part of each Gujarati’s life. While Christian calendar is very much in practice at job/business/professional fronts, when it comes to spirituality or faith, when it comes to fairs and festivals, when it comes to identify auspicious days and holy schedules, Gujarati calendar is followed.
Days in Gujarati calendar are pronounced like this: Monday = Somvar, Tuesday = Mangalvaar, Wednesday = Budhvaar, Thursday = Guruvaar, Friday = Shukravaar, Saturday = Shanivaar and Sunday = Ravivaar.
In general there are three seasons in India which are winter, summer and monsoon. They are respectively called Shiyaalo, Unaalo and Chomaasu in Gujarati language. However there are sub seasons too in each season. They are Vasant(spring), Grishma(summer), Varsha(monsoon), Sharad(autumn), Hemant(pre-winter) and Shishir(winter).
As per the Gujarati calendar, the months of Chaitra and Vaishakh are considered as Vasant or Spring. Similary Jeth and Ashadh are the months of Grishma or Summer. Shravana and Bhadarvo = Varsha or Monsoon. Aso and Kartak = Sharad or Autumn. Magshar and Posh mean Hemant or pre-winter and Maha and Fagan mean Shishir or Winter.
Gujarati Vikram Samvat Calendar is around 56-year ahead of Christian calendar. This means if as per Christian calendar it is year 2012, in Gujarati calendar it would be considered as 2012+56= 2068th year. The Vikrama Samvat lunar calendar was founded by the emperor Vikramaditya of Ujjain following his victory over the Shakas in 56 BCE. (To calculate the present Christian year, 57 years should be subtracted from the Indian year if the date is between starting of the Indian year and the end of the Western year i.e. between Kartak sud 1 and 31 December. If the date falls between the beginning of the Western year and the end of the Indian year i.e. between 1 January and Aso vad 30, then only 56 years should be subtracted.)
Gujarati Vikram Samvat calendar uses a solar year but divides it into 12 lunar months, each consisting 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes and 3 seconds. All together a lunar year of 354 days 8 hours 48 minutes and 36 seconds. To fix the lunar months into the solar year( because 60 solar months = 62 lunar months) there is a practice of adding an extra month which is called Adhik Mahino or Purushottam maas at interval of 30 months or say two and half years. In Gujarati Hindu Vikram Samvat Calendar seasons are as per the sun, months as per the moon and days as per both the sun and the moon.
Lunar days or tithis can have various lengths. Not only this but sometimes a tithi is omitted or sometime two continuous days share the same tithi. This is because in Gujarati Calendar the days are calculated using the difference of the longitudinal angle between the position of the sun and moon.
Difference between Gujarati Vikram Samvat Calendar year and northern Indian Vikram Samvat Calendar year is that while Gujarati Calendar year of Vikram Samvat begins with the first day after the new moon in the month of Kartak( a day after Diwali usually in October/November in popular calendar), in northern Indian parts the same Vikram Samvat calendar starts with the first day after the new moon in the month of Chaitra(usually in March/April in Christian calendar). On the other hand in Nepal where Vikram Samvat is official calendar the new year begins in the middle of April.
FOR GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSES ONLY